Kurima gorosi zvine pundutso

23 Apr, 2020 - 20:04 0 Views
Kurima gorosi zvine pundutso

Kwayedza

Wendy Madzura
KUTANGA kwemwaka mutsva kunounza tariro kuvarimi nokuti zvinovapa mukana wekuvandudza marimiro avo kuti vawane pundutso mumabasa avo.

Mwaka wechando ndiwo mwaka watakatarisana nawo, nokudaro zvakakosha kuti varimi vasarudze mbeu dzinodyarika panguva iyi idzo dzisingarohwi nechando. Izvi zvakakosha nokuti kurima ibhizimusi, nokudaro varimi vanofanira kurima mbesa dzinoenderana nemwaka kuti vasarasikirwe nemari.

Gororsi imbeu yakatikoshera senyika. Gororsi rinouya pechipiri pakukosha richitevera chibage (2nd most important cereal crop). Pagore tinoshandisa gorosi riri pakati pematani zviuru mazana mana kusvika pamazana mana nemakumi mashanu (400 000 to 450 000 metric tonnes) senyika.

Asi tiri kutenga gorosi riri pakati pezvikamu makumi manomwe kusvika pamakumi masere kubva muzana (70% – 80 %) richibva kunze kwenyika nokuda kwekutadza kurima rinokwana. Zvakakosha kuti tirime gorosi rinokwana kuti tidye senyika (food security) uye kana tikarima rinopfuura chipimo cheratinoshandisa senyika (food surplus), tinokwanisa kutengesa kune dzimwe nyika towana mari yekushandisa kuvandudza mararamito edu senyika

Gorosi rinodyarwa panguva yekunge mwaka wekunaya kwemvura wapfuura nokudaro chokutanga chinofanira kucherechedzwa nevarimi madiridziro. Madiridziro anokwana pakurima gorosi kubva pakudyara kusvika pakuibva kwaro ari pakati pe450 mm kusvika pa600 mm.

Varimi vanofanira kuongorora kuti madhamu avo ane mvura inokwana kudiridzira vasati vadyara. Varimi vanokurudzirwawo kugadzirisa michina yavo inosanganisira matarakita, magejo nemimwe inoshanda pakudyara inosanganisira ma”Vicon” kana ma”seed drill”. Izvi zvinoita kuti mabasa ekudyara nekuriritira mbeu afambe zvakanaka.

Nguva yekudyara gorosi yakakosha zvikuru uye inofanira kuchengetedzwa nokuti kunonoka kudyara kunounza matambudziko anotevera:

l Zvirwere netumbuyu zvinowanda kana nguva yechando yadarika

l Kubata mwaka kwakanaka nokuti murimi anokwanisa kubata mwaka wekudyara mbesa inotevera (double cropping)

l Mukana wekunaiwa kwegorosi riri mumunda zvinoita kuti ridzikire pahunaku hwekubika chingwa (baking quality)

Kurima mbesa ingava ipi zvayo zvemhando yebhizimusi kunotanga nekusarudza mbeu zvine hungwaru nekurima zvakanaka mumunda. Kusarudza mbeu yegorosi ndiko kutanga kwekurima zvine pundutso.

KuSeed Co kune mbeu dzemhando yepamusoro dzine chipo chegoho repamusoro. Kwemakore akawanda, varimi vakarima SC Nduna nokuda kwekuti inorimika kumativi mana enyika ichipa goho repamusoro.

Kushanduka kwakaita mwaka kwakaunza zvirwere zvinosanganisira chekuita ngura pamashizha (wheat leaf rust), kana dota jena pamashizha (powdery mildew). Izvi zvakaita kuti Seed Co iuchike mbeu itsva dzine huchenjeri hwekurwisa zvirwere izvi.

Mbeu yegorosi itsva yatinokurudzira varimi inonzi SC Select.

SC Select imbeu ine chipo chekupfupika (short statured). Izvi zvinoita kuti varimi vadyare madzinde akawanda pandima imwe chete kuti vawane goho repamusoro. Mbeu iyi haidonhe mumunda uye inoshingirira zvakanyanya kuzvirwere. Izvi zvinoita kuti varimi vasashandise mari yakawanda kutenga mishonga yekupfapfaidza, zvobva zvawedzera mari yavanowana kana vachinge vatengesa (return/dollar invested, Profit).

Huwandu hwembeu yegorosi hunodiwa pakudyara hunosiyana nemudziyo uchashandiswa pakudyara. Varimi vanodyara nemuchina unonzi seed drill vanoshandisa mbeu iri pakati pe110kg kusvika pa125kg pahekita. Vanoshandisa vicon spreader vanoda mbeu iri pakati pe125kg kusvika pa135kg pahekita.

Kana murimi achinge asarudza mbeu zvine hungwaru, zvakakosha kuti acherechedze zvose zvine mukana wekukwidza goho rake (good agronomic practices/GAPs).

Chokutanga murimi anofanira kurima munda kusvika watsetseka. Izvi zvinoita kuti mbeu neivhu zvibatane nenzira inoita kuti mbesa dzimere zvakanaka (seed soil contact). Panguva yekurima munda iyi varimi vanokurudzirwa kugadzira ivhu maringe nezvinenge zvabuda pakuongororwa kwevhu (soil analysis).

Pakurima munda, varimi vanofanira kuisa mafetireza anodiwa pakudyara anosanganisira Compound D kana dzimwe mhando dzinoshanda pakudyara chibage.

Panguva yekudyara, munda unofanira kudiridzirwa kusvika waguta mvura (field capacity). Izvi zvinoita kuti mbeu imere zvakanaka.

Mushure memazuva matatu kana mana, varimi vanokurudzirwa kudiridzira munda (light irrigation) kuti vaputse chikoko chepamusoro pevhu kuti mbeu imere zvakanaka.

Kana mbeu yegorosi ikamera zvakanaka, varimi vanofanira kumbomira kudiridza kuti riite nhungirwa (tillers).

Izvi zvinoitwa kwemazuva gumi (sandy soils) muivhu rakaita jecha nemazuva gumi nemana (14 days) muivhu rakaita chidhaka, (clay soil).

Panguva iyi mbeu inowedzera kudzikisa midzi kutsvaga mvura izvo zvinozobatsira kukura kwegorosi kana chikamu ichi chapfuura. Mushure memazuva aya varimi vanokurudzirwa kudiridzira vasati vaisa mafetireza epamusoro eAN kana Urea anodiwa nehuwandu hwe350kg – 500kg pahekita zvichisiyana neivhu.

Mushure vanokwanisa kuisa mushonga wesora maringe nemhando yesora rinenge rabuda mumunda. Tumbuyu tunosanganisira makonye nenhata twunoda kuti varimi vameme munda nguva nenguva kuti vapinde nemushonga dambudziko risati radzikisa goho ravo (economic threshold level)

Tarisirai gwaro rinotevera richakurukura zvizhinji nenyaya yemadiridziro nekuriritira mbeu yegorosi.

Panguva ino yambiro yedu ndeyekuti nguva yekudyara gorosi yasvika. Varimi vose vane madiridziro vanokurudzirwa kurima gorosi kuti tidzikise huwandu hwegorosi ratinotenga kunze. Rangarirai kuti kurima zvine pundutso kunotanga nekusarudza mbeu zvine hungwaru nekurima zvine pundutso.

Wendy Madzura mukuru wevarimisi kuSeed Co Zimbabwe. Sunungukai kumubata panhare dzinoti 0732270080

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