Musaputsa chirongo masvika . . .Mazano akanaka ekukohwa

08 May, 2020 - 00:05 0 Views
Musaputsa chirongo masvika . . .Mazano akanaka ekukohwa Mifananidzo yepanguva yekukohwa pamwechete nehunyoro hunokurudzirwa kuchibage nekusoya beans

Kwayedza

Wendy Madzura
VARIMI vazhinji vanorasikirwa negoho ravo riri pakati pe25 percent ne30 percent nokuda kwekutadza kukohwa zvakanaka.

Nokudaro, zvakakosha kuchengetedza goho mushure mekunge varimi vakohwa (harvest & post-harvest losses).

Goho rinogono kurasika nenzira dzinotevera:

  1. a) Huwandu hwegoho (quantitative losses) — kudyiwa netumbuyu kana kurasika pakutakura kubva kumunda (transit losses)
  2. b) Hunaku hwegoho (qualitative losses) — kukanganisika kwegoho nekuora, kunaiwa kana zvirwere)

Mubvunzo wekutanga une varimi vazhinji ndewekuti, vangaziva sei kuti chibage kana soya beans dzaibva uye dzasvika panguva yekutanga kukohwewa?

Zvakakosha kuti varimi vazive kuti kuibva kwembeu mumunda kunooneka nenzira dzakasiyana asi chokutanga mbesa dzese dzine mazuva adzakatarirwa ekusvika pakuibva (days to maturity). Mazuva okuibva anosiyana nenharaunda inenge yadyarwa mbeu.

Izvi zvinokonzerwa nekuti kudziya kwekunze munharaunda dzakasiyana kunosiyana maringe nekukwiririra kana kudzikira kunenge kwakaita nharaunda kubva mugungwa (altitude). Nokudaro mbeu inenge Nzou SC 727 inokurumidza kuibva kana ichinge yadyarwa kuMasvingo pane kunge yadyarwa kuChimanimani. Zvakakosha kuti varimi vatungamirirwe nemazuva okuibva kwembeu pamwe chete nenharaunda yavanenge varimira.

Zvakakosha kuti varimi vacherechedze nokutarisa zvirimwa zviri mumunda kuti zviri kuratidza here hunhu hwembeu dzasvika (visual symptoms). Tichipa muenzaniso wechibage, tinoona kuti chinoita kakofa katema patsanga kanoratidza kuti mbeu yaguma kukura.

Apa tinenge tichiti mbeu yasvika panguva yekuti goho harichawedzeri (physiological maturity).

Uyewo dzinde rembeu rinotanga kusanduka ruvara nokuomesa mashizha. Ngwarirai kuti kumwe kuoma kunokwanisa kufanana nekwechirwere, nokudaro yambiro yedu ndeyekuti varimi vacherechedze kuoma kwedzinde nemashizha pamwe chete nemazuva anotora mbeu kuti isvike pakuibva.

Zvakakosha kuongororesa hunyoro hwembesa kunyanyna chibage nesoya beans tisati tatanga kukohwa. Tinodaro nokuti kukohwa chibage chine huyoro hwakawanda kunoita kuti pave nemukana wekuti chibage nesoya beans zviwore uyewo kukohwa chibage chaomesesa zvekupfurikidza panokurudzirwa kuti chisvike zvinowedzera mukana wekuti chipindwe netumbuyu chichiri mumunda.

Nokudaro musati makohwa chibage, torai chishoma moenda nacho kunoongororesa hunyoro kuti hwasvika papi kunanaGMB nevamwe vanotenga mbesa.

Hunyoro hwekukohwa chibage hunogona kubva pa15 percent kusvika pa13 percent. Izvi zvinonyanya kuitika kune varimi vanenge vachida kudyara dzimwe mbesa dzinenge gorosi kana muriwo dzinodyarwa panguva yechando.

Kana chibage chakohwewa nehunyoro uhwu, chinofanira kuomeswa kuti chisvike pahunyoro hunodiwa kumisika inosanganisira GMB. Hunyoro uhu hunofanira kuve pa12,5 percent.

Nzira dzekukohwa dzinosanganisira kushandisa maoko kana michina

  1. a) Kukohwa nemaoko vachikanda muchikochikari tarakita ichifamba zvishoma. Iyi nzira inoda kuti vanokohwa vasawandise kuti vakande chibage chichisvika muchikochikari, kana kukohwa nemaoko vachikanda mumasaga kana mudhiramu vozokuturira muchikochikari. Chibage chinozoiswa musheller kana kutokonora nemaoko.

Ngwarirai kusiya chibage mumunda uye tarisai kuti sheller haiburitsi marara pamwe chete nechibage, nekuti zvinodzikisa goho. Chibage chese chinenge chadonha chinofanira kunhongwa.

  1. b) Kukohwa nemichina inonzi macombine harvester. Iyi michina inoda kucherechedzwa kuti iri kupindirana here nemitsara nekutaramutsa kwamunenge makaita mbesa pakudyara. Tinodaro nekuti michina iyi inogona kusiya rimwe goho mumunda. Michina iyi inotoda kugadziriswa isati yatanga kushanda kuti isatsemure mbeu izvo zvinozoita kuti mbeu dzitadze kutengwa zvakanaka kumisika.

Kana varimi vachinge vakohwa chibage chine hunyora hwakakwira kudarika hunokurudzirwa, pakuchengeta mbeu vanofanira kutevedzera nzira dzekuomesa chibage kana soya kuti goho risawore riri muimba yekuchengetera. Nzira dzingashandiswa nevarimi kuwomesa chibage kana vachinge vakohwa chine hunyoro hwepamusoro pe12,5 % dzinosanganisira:

  1. i) Kuisa chibage padara rakakwirira uye rakagadzirwa newaya kuti chiwane mhepo yekuoma zvakanaka, vamwe vanowarika paruware kana patende. Musayanike chibage pasi chaipo musina chamawaridza nokuti chinozotora hunyoro kubva pasi chononoka kuoma kana kuwora.
  2. ii) Imwe nzira yekuomesa chibage ndeyekuchiisa mumichina inopisa zvekuti hunyoro hunopera anonzi magrain dryers. Izvi zvinowanzoitwa nevarimi vendima dzakakura vanenge vachida kudyara mbesa dzinenge gorosi nenguva.

Nekudaro vanokohwa chibage chiine hunyoro hwakawanda vozochiomesa mumagrain dryer.

Panguva yekukohwa zvakakosha kuti varimi vacherechedze zvese zvinoita kuti vadzikise mukana wekurasikirwa negoho ravo. Varimi musaputse chirongo masvika, cherechedzai zviga zvinoita kuti mukohwe zvakanaka.

Rangarirai kuti Seed Co ndiwo musha wegoho guru.

 

Wendy Madzura mukuru webazi revarimisi kuSeed Co Zimbabwe.

 

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