Nzira dzekurima munda

19 Nov, 2020 - 16:11 0 Views
Nzira dzekurima munda Kurima nebadza

Kwayedza

Wendy Madzura
KUMATIVI mana enyika tiri kuona kuti varimi vari kutora mukana wekunaya kwaita mvura kuita gadziriro yemwaka wekurima, kunyanya varimi vasina madiridziro. Nemvura yanaya iyi, mubvunzo uri kunetsa varimi vazhinji ndewekuti nguva yekutanga kudyara wasvika here?

Yambiro iri kubva kune vanoona nezvemamiriro ekunze pamwe chete nevarimisi ndeyekuti dai varimi vambomira kudyara nekuti mvura haisati yanaya inokwana kuti mbeu dzimere nekutanga kukura zvakanaka (effective rainfall (>30mm). Pamusoro pezvo, pane tarisiro yekuti mvura ichamboenda muvhiki rinotevera zvinozoita kuti mbeu dzinenge dzadyarwa dziore.

Nokudaro nguva ino varimi vanokurudzirwa kuita gadziriro yeminda zvakakwana vachishandisa hunyoro huri muvhu, pamwe chete nekutenga zvinodiwa pakurima.

Nhasi tinokurukura nezvekurima munda (tillage & land preparation) nokuti tinoda kuti varimi vaite izvi nemazvo uye nenguva kuti varime zvine pundutso — kunyanya vachishandisa hunyoro huri muvhu.
Varimi vanokurudzirwa kuti vagamuchire nzira dzekurima munda dzisingakanganise ivhu kana mamiriro ekunze (environment). Kurima kwaveko mazuva ano ndekwemhando yebhizimusi nokudaro zvakakosha kuti murimi acherechedze kuti nzira dzekurima dzaari kushandisa hadzisi kutaputsa mari yaanosara nayo muhomwe here, iya inonzi profit.

Zvakare pasi rose riri kufamba nedingindira rekuchengetedza nharaunda. Nokudaro murimi anofanira kuona kuti nzira dzekurima dzaanoshandisa hadzisi kukanganisa utano hwevhu kana kurasa mvura zvakanyanya.

Nzira idzi dzinopinda mubandiko rinonzi “conservation tillage systems” umo matinowana chirongwa chePFUMVUDZA. Idzi nzira dzekurima dzinovavarira kuchengetedza mamiriro evhu pamwe chete nemvura. Nzira dzekurima idzi dzakanakira kuti:
• Dzine mukana mudiki wekuti ivhu rinokukurwa nemvura kana nemhepo (reduced erosion). Mashanga anenge ari pamusoro pevhu anochengetedza ivhu kubva kumvura yekunaya pamwe chete nekudzivirira ivhu kubva kumhepo ine simba.

• Nzira iyi inowedzera kudzika kwemvura muvhu
• Inoita kuti ivhu risapisa zvakanyanya nekuda kwemashanga kunyanya muna Gumiguru naMbudzi.
• Inovandutsa mamiriro evhu (soil structure) kuburikidza nekusasandura kana kukanganisa ivhu zvakanyanya. Izvi zvinobatsira twumbuyu twunorarama muvhu nekuita kuti zvinhu zviorere kwenguva refu.
• Inotapudza nguva inotorwa kuita gadziriro pamunda pamwe chete nekudzikisa mitengo yegadziriro.
• Mashanga pamusoro pevhu anodzivirira kumera kwesora diki mumunda, izvo zvinodzikisa huwandu hwesora mumunda.

PFUMVUDZA/INTWASA chirongwa chekurima chinoshandisa ndima diki, chine muero wakatarwa wekukura kunofanira kuita ndima pamwe chete nekuwanda kunoita mitsara kana makomba pandima. Chirongwa ichi chinopinda mubandiko re“conservation farming” rinovavarira kuchengetedza nharaunda nehunyoro pakurima (climate smart, sustainable agriculture). Ndima yePfumvudza inenge yakataramuka sezvizvi:
39m kureba kwendima (length) x 16m kufara kwendima (width) = 624 m2 (1/16th yehekita imwe chete)
52 mitsara yakataramuka seizvi:
• 60cm (kubva padzinde kuenda pane rimwe dzinde) inrow and 75cm (kubva pamutsara kuenda pane umwe (interrow) kuchibage
Mutsara mumwe chete unenge uine makomba 28
Pakudyara, varimi vanofanira kuisa tsanga mbiri mbiri mugomba vobva vawana madzinde 56 pamutsara mumwe chete.

Pakukohwa, mutsara mumwe chete unopa miguri 56 yakasvika. Miguri 56 yakasvika inozadza bhagidhi rimwe chete re20lt rinokwana kupa kudya kumhuri ine vanhu 4 kusvika ku6 kwevhiki rimwe chete. Sezvo ndima imwe chete yePfumvudza ichiita mitsara 52, inofambirana nemavhiki 52 ari pagore zvichireva kuti mhuri inowana kudya kwegore rose.

Zvadero, varimi vanokurudzirwa kudyara ndima mbiri kana nhatu kuitira kutengesa nekuwana dzimwe mbesa dzinosanganisira soya beans nembeu dzetsanga diki dzakaita semapfunde. Pfumvudza inzira yagamuchirwa zvikuru nevarimi vari kumaruwa nevemumaguta kunyanya vaya vasina midziyo yekurimisa.
Mienzaniso yedzimwe nzira dze”conservation farming” dzatinokurudzira inoti tied ridges, rip on role, wet ripping nezero tillage

1) TIED RIDGING — Iyi nzira yekuti varimi vanodyara mbesa mumigero inenge yavhurwa muvhu vozogadzira mihomba kana mbesa yava kukura. Vamwe vanogadzira mihomba vobva vadyarara. Chakakosha ndechekuti vavhare migero inenge iri mumunda kugadzira twuma dhamu twunozobata mvura kana yanaya. Iyi inzira inoda vanhu vakawanda kuita asi vamwe vanogadzira mihomba inogara yakadaro mumunda.
2) RIP ON ROLE/MULCH RIPPING — Kuvhura mugero unotevedzana necontour line, mugero uyu ndiwo unozodyarwa mbeu. Makomba anozovhurwa nebadza kana muchina pakudyara. Iyi nzira yakanakira kuti haidi vanhu vakawanda uye inoitika nekukurmidza. Inzira yakanaka zvakare paivhu rinoita chikoko pamusoro (crust) kana rakaomarara. Iyi nzira yakanakira kuchengetedza hunyoro kunzimbo dzinonaya mvura shoma uye inobatsira kuti mvura isakukurwe kunzimbo dzinonaya mvura yakawandisa.
3) WET RIPPING — Iyi inzira yekuti matines eripper anofambiswa pakati pemitsara yembesa painenge ichikura kunyanya pasati papfuura mavhiki mana kuitira kuti mbesa isatyorwe kana kuti midzi isakanganiswa. Iyi inzira inochengetedza hunyoro muvhu.

4) ZERO-TILLAGE — Iyi inzira yekuti mbeu inodyarwa mumunda usina kurimwa. Makomba anovhurwa nebadza kana nemuchina wakagadzirirwa basa irori. Iyi nzira yakanaka nekuti haidi kuti varimi vashandise zvipfiwo zvavo, inochengetedza hunyoro pamwe chete nehutano hwevhu. Nzira iyi inoita kuti ivhu risakukurwe zvakanyanya nemvura kana mhepo (erosion). Kuti nzira iyi ibudirire, zvakakosha kuti varimi vachengete 30% yemashanga asara mumunda uye inoda kuti sora ridzivirirwe zvakakwana. Nzira iyi inoda zvakare kuti varimi vachinjanise mbeu dziri mumhuri dzakasiyana, kudzivirira twumbuyu nezvirwere mumunda pamwe nekungwarira kuomarara kwevhu pamusoro (surface compaction).

Pakusarudza nzira yekurima, zvakakosha kuti varimi vasarudze nzira dzekurima minda nehungwaru nokuti kurima munda zvakanaka ndiyo hoko yekurima zvine pundutso, uye zvinopa hutano kuivhu nekuchengetedza hunyoro. Izvi zvinozoonekwa panguva refu inotevera (long-term soil fertility & soil moisture retention).
• Kurima munda kunoita kuti ivhu riregedzere zvobatsira kuti midzi ikwanise kudzika muvhu zvakanaka. Midzi inobva yakwanisa kutora mafotereza nemvura muvhu kuti mbesa dzikura zvakanaka
• Kurima munda zvakanaka kunopinza mhepo muvhu zvinobatsira mbeu kuti dzikure zvakanaka.
• Kurima zvakanaka kunobatsira kusanganisa manyowa, mishonga yesora nemafotereza neivhu, izvi zvinovandutsa mamiriro evhu (soil structure) uye zvichiwedzera utano hwevhu.
• Zvirwere, twumbuyu nesora zvinouraiwa kana varimi vachinge varima zvakanaka nekuti vanenge vapindura ivhu. Izvi zvinobatsira kuti mbesa dzimere pamwe chete (uniform crop emergence) nekukura zvakanaka, mhedzisiro varimi vowana goho repamusoro.

Wendy Madzura mudhumeni weSEED CO uye anobatika panhare dzinoti 0713270080 / 0773270080

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