Kukosha kwekuongororesa ivhu

15 May, 2020 - 00:05 0 Views
Kukosha kwekuongororesa ivhu Zvakakosha kuti varimi vaongorore ivhu ravo kuti vaone kuti riri kuvava kana kutapira zvakadii (pH) uye kuti muvhu mune kudya kwakadii yatinoti fertility/nutrient analysis.

Kwayedza

Wendy Madzura
KURIMA kwaveko mazuva ano kwave kwemhando yebhizimusi nokudaro donzvo revarimi rinofanira kuva rekuti vatevedze tsika dzinoita kuti varime zvine pundutso.

Ivhu ndochimwe chezvinhu zvinokosha nekuti muvhu ndimo munokurira mbesa. Nokudaro zvakakosha kuti varimi vaone kuti ivhu raongororwa. Kune zvinhu zviviri zvakakosha muvhu kuti mbesa dzikure zvakanaka zvinoti:

  1. i) Kukwanisa kupa mbeu kudya kwakakodzera nehuwandu hwakakwana uye panguva yakafanira.
  2. ii) Kukwanisa kupa mbeu mvura kana hunyoro hwakakwana kuti mbesa dzikure zvakanaka.

Nokudaro zvakakosha kuti varimi vaongorore ivhu ravo kuti vaone kuti riri kuvava kana kutapira zvakadii (pH) uye kuti muvhu mune kudya kwakadii yatinoti fertility/nutrient analysis.

Nguva yakanaka kuongorora ivhu inguva yekunge varimi vakohwa mbesa dzavo dzezvizha. Kureva kuti panguva ino varimi vanokurudzirwa kutanga kutora ivhu kuti vanzwisise kuti ivhu ravo rinoda mhando dzemafortireza api uye nehuwandu hwakadini. Varimi vanofanira kuziva kuti kana ivhu richivava, vanofanira kuisa lime paine mwedzi mina kana mishanhu vasati vadyara mbesa dzinotevera. Izvi zvinoita kuti lime igadzirise kuvava kwevhu zvakanaka. Kuongorora ivhu panguva yechando kunoita kuti varimi vanoda kurima mbesa dzemuchando vaite gadziriro yakakwana yefertireza inodiwa pamunda pavo.

Ivhu rinofanira kuongororwa kamwe pamakore matatu kana mana asi zvinosiyana nemarimiro amunenge muchiita. Munda unoitwa double cropping unoda kuongororwa mushure menguva pfupi kudarika munda unorimwa kamwechete pagore.

Nzira yekutora ivhu inoshandiswa nevazhinji ndeyekupatsanura munda zvichienderana nekusiyana kunenge kwakaita ruvara kana mamiriro evhu (Jecha, Dzvuku, Shapa, mhukutu). Zvakakosha kuti varimi vasatore ivhu pachuru nekuti rinenge rakasiyana nerimwe rakakomberedza churu.

Pakutora ivhu varimi vanofanira kuziva kuti chakakosha kuwana chitsama chevhu chinenge chichimirira mamirio anenge akaita munda wese. Nzira dzokutora ivhu dzinosanganisira kutora munda muchinyora Z kana kungotora nzvimbo dzakawanda pandima imwechete (random sampling). Ivhu rinogona kutorwa pandima inevhu rakafanana inogona kuita gumi kusvika pamakumi maviri. Pakutora ivhu panoshanda badza, foshoro kana kuti inonzi sampling auger. Varimi vanofanira kudzikisa badza kusvika pa20 cm dzokutanga nokuti umu ndimo munokurira midzi yembesa.

Kana ivhu remundima yakafanana ratorwa rinofanira kusanganiswa potorwa chitsama chishoma chekuendesa kunoongororwa (1 – 1.5 kg). Zvakakosha kunyora zvinoonekwa pabepa rinotsanangura kuti ivhu rinenge rabva pai nokuti zvinozobatsira pakuverenga mirairo inozouya mushure mewongororo.

Ivhu rinoongororwa kunzvimbo dzakasiyanasiyana dzinosanganisira kubazi rehurumende rinoona nezve tsvakurudzo, zvikoro zvedzidzo yepamusoro (ma University) pamwechete nemafertilizer company, ayo anobva apa mhando nehuwandu hwefertilizer inokurudzrirwa. Pakuongororwa kwevhu varimi vanofanira kuziva kuti havakwanisi kuona kuti ivhu rinovava zvakadini nekungoritarisa kana kushandisa ruvara rwevhu. Kune chikero chinoshandiswa kuona kuti ivhu ririkuvava here kana kutapira chinonzi “calcium chloride scale”. Ivhu rinovava (ACIDIC) rinenge riri pasi pa7 pachikero ichi asi rinenge riripamusoro pa7 rinonzi rinotapira (ALKALINE).

Kuvava kwevhu kunokonzerwa nezvinotevera:

  1. i) Chokutanga kukohwa varimi vachibvisa mashanga ese mumunda kunoita kuti ivhu rirasikirwe nekudya kunonosanganisira calcium ne magnesium.
  2. ii) Mvura yekunaya inogona kugeza kumwe kudya kunenge kuri muvhu kwobva kwaenda pasi pasingakwanisi kusvikwa nemidzi zvoita kuti ivhu ritange kuvava.

iii) Kushandisa mhando yefertireza inekudya kwenitrogen inosanganisira AN, UREA

Zvino kuvava kwevhu kunokwanisa kusvika pakutadzisa chirimwa kukura zvakanaka. Kana ivhu richivava rinobva rasunga kumwe kudya kunodiwa nembesa. Zvoita kuti mbesa itadze kukura zvakanaka. Muyenzaniso ndewekudya kunodiwa nembesa zvakanyanya anonzi ma “Macro elements” anoti, Nitrogen inokudza mhumhu wembeu, Phosphorous inokudza midzi inozoita kuti mbeu itore mafertireza nemvura pamwechete nePottasium inoita kuti mbeu ikure zvakanaka pamwechete nekubereka. Kune kumwe kudya kunodiwa nembesa kusina kuwanda anonzi mamicro nutrients/trace elements, kunoita kushoma zvotadzisa mbeu kukura zvakanaka.

Kuvava kwevhu kunoita kuti twupukanana twemuvhu twunobatsira kuti ivhu rive nehutano hwakanaka twutadze kukura. Uye chokupedzisira mamiriro evhu (physical structure) anokanganiswa nekuvava kwevhu zvoita kuti ivhu riite chikoko chakaomarara pamusoro pemunda chinotadzisa mbeu kumera zvakanaka.

Nyaya yekuongororesa ivhu yakakosha nekuti inoita kuti varimi vavandutse marimiro avo kuti vawane pundutso. Zvakakosha kuti vaite wongororo iyi nemazuva uye nenguva yakafanira. Tarisirai gwaro revhiki rinotevera ratichange tichikurikura nezvenzira dzekugaedzirisa ivhu kana richivava. Rangarirai kuti kurima ibhizimusi, nokudaro zvakakosha kuti varimi vacherechedze zvese zvine mukana wekuvapa goho repamusoro.

Kana munda uine ivhu rinovava varimi vanofanira kushandisa lime. Mhando dzelime dzinoshandiswa dzinosanganisira DOLOMITIC LIME neCALCITIC LIME. Mhando mbiri idzi dzinosiyana pakugadzirisa kwadzo ivhu uye pachikafu chadzinowedzera muvhu.

Hatikurudziri varimi kungoisa chero mhando yelime nekuti zvinoita kuti kumwe kudya kunodiwa nembesa kuite kushoma. Varimi vanoona mavara pamashizha embesa dzavo nokudaro kurudziro ndeyekuongororesa ivhu moudzwa mhando inoenderana nemunda wenyu.

Wendy Madzura ndiye Mudhumeni Mukuru kuchikamu chevarimisi kuSeed Co

 

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